Further reading

If you’re looking for more depth, here are all sources used for our Rethinking Security discussion paper, categorised.

Security strategy, the Defence establishment, and the armed forces

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Aburish, S. K., 2001. Saddam Hussein: The Politics of Revenge. London: Bloomsbury.

Allison, G. T., 1968. ‘Conceptual models and the Cuban Missile Crisis: Rational policy, organization process, and bureaucratic politics’. 1st ed. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation.

BBC, 2014. ‘The Lion’s Last Roar (Parts I and II)’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04nd3rq. [Accessed November 2014].

BBC, 2015b. ‘BBC World Service gets funding boost from government’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-34902244. [Accessed 19 December 2015].

BBC, 2010a. ‘Britain suffered defeat in Iraq, says US general’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-11419878. [Accessed 19 July 2015].

Bradshaw, A., 2015. as cited in ‘Russian expansionism may pose existential threat, says Nato general’. Guardian, 20 February.

Cabinet Office, 2015. Information obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, Ref. FOI321737, London: Cabinet Office.

Cabinet Office, 2015. ‘National Security Council’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/national-security/groups/national-security-council. [Accessed 20 December 2015].

Cameron, D., 2014b. cited in Hansard, 8 September, c654, s.l.: Hansard: HC Deb.

Chalmers, M., 2014a. ‘The sinews of war’. In: A. L. Johnson, ed. ‘Wars in peace: British military operations since 1991’. London: Royal United Services Institute, pp. 267-290.

Chalmers, M., 2014b. ‘The strategic scorecard: Six out of ten’. In: A. L. Johnson, ed. ‘Wars in peace: British military operations since 1991’. London: Royal United Services Institute, pp. 89-136.

Chalmers, M., 2015a. ‘Mind the gap: The MoD’s emerging budgetary challenge’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/201502-BP-MoD-Emerging-Budgetary-Challenge.pdf. [Accessed 23 July 2015].

Chalmers, M., 2015b. ‘A force for order: Strategic underpinnings of the next NSS and SDSR’, London: Royal United Services Institute.

Clarke, M., 2014. ‘Brothers in arms: The British-American alignment’. In: A. L. Johnson, ed. ‘Wars in peace: British military operations since 1991’. London: Royal United Services Institute, pp. 237-265.

Cohn, C., 1987. ‘Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals’. Signs, 12(4), p. pp. 687–718.

Coll, S., 2004. ‘Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001’. New York: Penguin.

Collins, T., 2013. ‘A betrayal of tomorrow’s leaders’. Daily Mail, 19 May.

Conlan, T., 2015. ‘BBC World Service to receive £289m from government’. Guardian, 23 November.

Cornish, P. & Dorman, A. M., 2015. ‘Complex security and strategic latency: The UK Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015’. International Affairs, 91(2), pp. 351-370.

Coughlin, C., 2015a. ‘Ignoring defence is a mistake, Mr Cameron’. Telegraph, 26 February.

Coughlin, C., 2015b. ‘US fears that Britain’s defence cuts will diminish Army on world stage’. Telegraph, 1 March.

Dannatt, R., 2007. as cited in ‘Gen Sir Richard Dannatt’s speech’. [Online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7006888.stm. [Accessed 12 July 2015].

Dannatt, R., 2014. as cited in BBC, ‘The Lion’s Last Roar (Part I)’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04nd3rq. [Accessed 2014 November].

Davies, Q., Clark, B. & Sharp, M., 2008. ‘Report of Inquiry into National Recognition of the Armed Forces’, London: The Stationery Office.

Dixon, P., 2012. ‘Bringing It All Back Home: The Militarisation of Britain and the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars’. In: P. Dixon, ed. ‘The British Approach to Counterinsurgency: From Malaya and Northern Ireland to Iraq and Afghanistan’. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 112-146.

Dorman, A., 2015. Memorandum of Evidence. In: ‘The next National Security Strategy: Written evidence’. London: HC/HL Joint Committee on the National Security Strategy, pp. 52-56.

DW.com, 2014b. ‘Von der Leyen dubious about NATO’s 2-percent rule’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.dw.com/en/von-der-leyen-dubious-about-natos-2-percent-rule/a-17907143. [Accessed 23 July 2015].

Dymock, A., 2015. as cited in ‘David Cameron “endangering special relationship with America” by not protecting defence spending’. Telegraph, 14 January.

Fallon, M., 2015. as cited in BBC, ‘Russia “danger” to Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia – Fallon’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-31528981. [Accessed 1 September 2015].

Fallon, M., 2015. ‘Defence Secretary’s speech to RUSI on the SDSR 2015’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/defence-secretarys-speech-to-rusi-on-the-sdsr-2015. [Accessed 20 December 2015].

Farmer, B. & Foster, P., 2014. ‘Obama and Cameron to tell Nato allies to increase defence spending’. Telegraph, 31 August.

Farmer, B., 2015. ‘Obama to Cameron: maintain UK defence spending or weaken Nato’. Telegraph, 10 February.

Fogh Rasmussen, A., 2014. ‘De-escalation starts on the ground’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/opinions_109102.htm. [Accessed 30 August 2015].

Fox, L., 2015. ‘Dr Liam Fox MP: It is time to end the absurd policy of hitting ISIS in Iraq but not Syria’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.conservativehome.com/platform/2015/07/dr-liam-fox-mp-it-is-time-to-end-the-absurd-policy-of-hitting-isis-in-iraq-but-not-syria.html. [Accessed 31 July 2015].

France, Ministry of Defence, 2013. ‘White paper: Defence and national security (Twelve key points)’, Paris: French Government.

Gates, R., 2014. as cited in ‘Military cuts mean ‘no US partnership’, Robert Gates warns Britain’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25754870. [Accessed 23 July 2015].

Gee, D., 2008. ‘Informed Choice? Armed forces recruitment practice in the United Kingom’, London: Gee.

Germany, CDU/CSU, 2008. ‘A security strategy for Germany’, Berlin: CDU/CSU Parliamentary Group.

Goldstein, A., 2005. ‘Rising to the challenge: China’s grand strategy and international security’. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Gregory, F. & Wilkinson, P., 2005. ‘Riding pillion is a high-risk policy’. In: ‘Security, terrorism and the UK: ISP/NSC briefing paper 05/01’. London: Chatham House, pp. 2-4.

HC DC, 2014. ‘Towards the next Defence and Security Review: Part two — NATO’, London: House of Commons Defence Committee.

HC DC, 2015a. ‘Re-thinking defence to meet new threats (Tenth Report of Session 2014-15)’, London: House of Commons Defence Committee.

HC Library, 2010. ‘A brief guide to previous British defence reviews’. [Online]. Available at: http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN05714/SN05714.pdf. [Accessed 23 August 2015].

HC Library, 2015. ‘Defence expenditure: NATO 2% target’, London: House of Commons Library.

HC/HL NSS Committee, 2014. ‘The work of the Joint Committee on the National Security Strategy in 2013-14 – Joint Committee on the National Security Strategy. Appendix: Government response’, London: Joint Committee on the National Security Strategy.

HC/HL NSS Committee, 2015. ‘The next National Security Strategy’ (First report of session 2014-15), London: House of Commons and House of Lords Joint Committee on the National Security Strategy.

Herz, J. H., 1951. ‘Political realism and political idealism: A study in theories and realities’. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hirschfield Davis, J. & Shear, M. D., 2015. ‘Ukraine Crisis and Advance of ISIS Dominate Agenda for Group of 7’. New York Times, 8 June.

Hitchens, P., 2015. ‘It’s Nato that’s empire-building, not Putin’. Spectator, 7 March.

HM Gov., 2008. ‘The national security strategy of the United Kingdom: Security in an interdependent world’, London: Cabinet Office.

HM Gov., 2010a. ‘Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The Strategic Defence and Security Review’, London: The Stationery Office.

HM Gov., 2010b. ‘A Strong Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The National Security Strategy’, London: The Stationery Office.

HM Gov., 2015b. ‘National security strategy and strategic defence and security review 2015: A secure and prosperous United Kingdom’, London: Cabinet Office.

HM Treasury, 2015. ‘Spending review and autumn statement 2015’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/spending-review-and-autumn-statement-2015-documents/spending-review-and-autumn-statement-2015. [Accessed 19 December 2015].

Houghton, N., 2013. as cited at ‘Top general warns over ‘hollowed-out’ armed forces’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25440814. [Accessed 23 July 2015].

Houghton, N., 2015. ‘Building a British military fit for future challenges rather than past conflicts’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/building-a-british-military-fit-for-future-challenges-rather-than-past-conflicts. [Accessed 27 December 2015].

IPPR, 2009. ‘Shared responsibilities: A national security strategy for the UK’, London: Institute for Public Polcy Research.

Johnson, A. L., 2014. Introduction. In: A. L. Johnson, ed. ‘Wars in peace: British military operations since 1991’. London: Royal United Services Institute, pp. 1-12.

Kearns, I., Kulesa, Ł. & Frear, T., 2015. ‘Russia-West dangerous brinkmanship continues’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.europeanleadershipnetwork.org/russia–west-dangerous-brinkmanship-continues-_2529.html. [Accessed 30 August 2015].

McElroy, R. W., 1992. ‘Morality and American foreign policy: The role of ethics in international affairs’. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

McInnis, K., 2015. as cited in ‘Obama to Cameron: maintain UK defence spending or weaken Nato’. Telegraph, 10 February.

Meyer, C., 2015. ‘Our special relationship hangs by a thread’. Telegraph, 15 January.

Milevski, L., 2011. ‘A collective failure of grand strategy: The West’s unintended wars of choice’. RUSI Journal, 156(1), pp. 30-33.

MoD, 1998. ‘Strategic Defence Review’, London: Ministry of Defence.

MoD, 2013. ‘Risk: The Implications of Current Attitudes to Risk for the Joint Operational Concept’, London: Guardian, 26 September 2013.

MoD, 2014. ‘Global strategic trends – out to 2045’. 5th ed. London: Ministry of Defence.

NATO, 2015. ‘Funding NATO’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_67655.htm. [Accessed 23 July 2015].

Office of the Prime Minister, 2010. ‘Establishment of a National Security Council’. [Online]. Available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130109092234/http://number10.gov.uk/news/establishment-of-a-national-security-council/. [Accessed 20 December 2015].

O’Neill, S. & Rigby, E., 2015. ‘Overseas aid to give £85m boost to BBC World Service’. Times, 24 November.

Osborne, G., 2015. ‘Summer Budget 2015: speech’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/chancellor-george-osbornes-summer-budget-2015-speech. [Accessed 23 July 2015].

Parkinson, S., Pace, B. & Webber, P., 2013. ‘Offensive insecurity: The role of science and technology in UK security strategies’, Lancaster: Scientists for Global Responsibility.

Pugliese, D., 2014. ‘Canada, Germany derail NATO bid to raise military spending targets’. [Online]. Available at: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/canada-germany-derail-nato-bid-to-raise-military-spending-targets. [Accessed 11 August 2015].

Putin, V., 2015b. ‘Putin: Russia will have to aim armed forces at countries posing threat’. [Online]. Available at: http://sputniknews.com/russia/20150616/1023447771.html. [Accessed 27 July 2015].

Rachman, G., 2013. ‘Disarmed Europe will face the world alone’. Financial Times, 18 February.

Rajendran, G., 2015. ‘The UK – meeting the 2% NATO target’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iiss.org/en/topics/defence-policy/uk-meeting-the-2-percent-nato-target-1b6a. [Accessed 12 July 2015].

Richards, D., 2014. Foreword. In: A. L. Johnson, ed. ‘Wars in peace: British military operations since 1991’. London: Royal United Services Institute, pp. ix-xii.

Richards, D., 2015. as cited in BBC, ‘The Andrew Marr Show’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02xgyl8. [Accessed 29 August 2015].

Rigby, E. & Cadman, E., 2015. ‘Osborne asks Whitehall to plan 40% budget cuts’. Financial Times, 21 July.

Riley-Smith, B., 2015b. ‘David Cameron “endangering special relationship with America” by not protecting defence spending. Telegraph, 14 January.

RUSI, 2014. ‘Book launch – Wars in Peace: British Military Operations since 1991’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.rusi.org/events/ref:E535A1DCCBFE86/#.VaJVM_lVikp

Security Service: MI5, 2015. ‘What is national security?’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.mi5.gov.uk/home/about-us/what-we-do/protecting-national-security.html. [Accessed 1 August 2015].

Security Service: MI5, 2016. ‘Threat levels’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.mi5.gov.uk/home/the-threats/terrorism/threat-levels.html. [Accessed 25 March 2016].

Sheinwald, N., 2015. as cited in ‘David Cameron “endangering special relationship with America” by not protecting defence spending’. Telegraph, 14 January.

SIPRI, 2015a. ‘Trends in world military expenditure, 2014’. [Online]. Available at: http://books.sipri.org/files/FS/SIPRIFS1504.pdf. [Accessed 12 July 2015].

SIPRI, 2015b. ‘Military expenditure database (Military expenditure of 2014: NATO member state in constant (2011) US$m, 1949-2014)’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.sipri.org/research/armaments/milex/research/armaments/milex/milex_database. [Accessed 23 July 2015].

Spain, Department of National Security, 2013. ‘The national security strategy: Sharing a common project’, Madrid: Government of Spain.

Stacey, K., 2015. ‘UK diplomats open own wallets as cuts bite’. Financial Times, 11 June.

Stewart, R., 2015. ‘Defence plans no longer address new threats’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/defence-committee/news/re-thinking-defence-to-meet-new-threats-report-published/. [Accessed 28 December 2015].

Strachan, H., 2014. as cited in BBC, ‘The lion’s last roar’ [Two parts]. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04nd3rq. [Accessed November 2014].

Sweden, Ministry of Defence, 2015. ‘Sweden’s Defence Policy’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.government.se/globalassets/government/dokument/forsvarsdepartementet/sweden_defence_policy_2016_to_2020. [Accessed 18 July 2015].

Swinford, S. & Farmer, B., 2015. ‘Election 2015: Conservatives will not commit to NATO defence target’. Telegraph, 9 April.

Task Force on Cooperation in Greater Europe, 2015. ‘Avoiding war in Europe: How to reduce the risk of a military encounter between Russia and NATO’, London: European Leadership Network, Russian International Affairs Council, Polish Institute of International Affairs & Strategic Research Organisation in Ankara.

Telegraph View, 2014. ‘Britain’s freedom depends on military strength’. Telegraph, 16 January.

Unknown Known. 2013. [Film] Directed by Errol Morris. US: History FIlms, Moxie Pictures, Participant Media, The Weinstein Company.

US Embassy in Kabul, 2008. ‘US embassy cables: UK “not up to task” of securing Helmand, says US’. Guardian, 9 December.

US Embassy in London, 2010. ‘US Embassy cables: Gordon Brown’s first national security strategy greeted by “collective yawn”‘. Guardian, 2 December.

US, White House, 2015. ‘National security strategy’, Washington DC: Office of the President of the United States.

Wall, P., 2015. ‘Don’t play politics with defence’. Telegraph, 10 March.

Waltz, K. N., 1988. ‘The origins of war in neorealist theory’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 18(4), pp. 615-628.

World Bank, 2014. ‘Military expenditure (% of GDP)’. [Online]. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/MS.MIL.XPND.GD.ZS/countries/GB-US-EU?display=graph. [Accessed 19 July 2015].

Coercive military action and its impact

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Abbott, C., 2005. ‘Rights and responsibilities: Resolving the dilemma of humanitarian intervention’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/sites/default/files/rightsresponsibilities.pdf. [Accessed 19 July 2015].

Ackerman, S., 2014. ’41 men targeted but 1,147 people killed: US drone strikes – the facts on the ground’. Guardian, 24 November.

Airwars.org, 2016. ‘Civilian and “friendly fire” casualties’. [Online]. Available at: http://airwars.org/civilian-casualty-claims/. [Accessed 20 February 2016].

Amnesty International, 2015a. ‘”Bombs fall from the sky day and night”: Civilians under fire in northern Yemen’, London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International, 2015b. ‘Syria: Russia’s shameful failure to acknowledge civilian killings’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/12/syria-russias-shameful-failure-to-acknowledge-civilian-killings/. [Accessed 20 February 2016].

Amnesty International, 2015c. ‘Syria’s ‘Circle of hell’: Barrel bombs in Aleppo bring terror and bloodshed forcing civilians underground’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/05/syrias-circle-of-hell-barrel-bombs-in-aleppo/. [Accessed 20 February 2016].

Anderson, D., 2012. ‘The Terrorism Acts in 2011’, London: The Stationery Office.

Balkansnet.org, n.d. [Untitled]. [Online]. Available at: http://balkansnet.org/raccoon/kosova.html#rambo1. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

BBC, 1999a. ‘US plays down German peace plan’. [Online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/319915.stm. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

BBC, 1999b. ‘NATO’s bombing blunders’. [Online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/340966.stm. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

BBC, 1999c. ‘Kosovo war cost £30 billion’. [Online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/476134.stm. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

BBC, 2010b. ‘Cost of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan tops £20bn’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10359548. [Accessed 11 April 2014].

BBC, 2010c. ‘Namesakes welcome Tony Blair during Kosovo visit’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10576544. [Accessed 2 January 2016].

BBC, 2011b. ‘Libya: Where do NATO countries stand?’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13092451. [Accessed 7 August 2015].

BBC, 2015a. ‘Battle for Iraq and Syria in maps’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-27838034. [Accessed 31 July 2015].

BBC, 2015c. ‘Syria vote: Cameron and Corbyn clash over air strikes’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-34980504. [Accessed 15 January 2016].

Bilmes, L. J., 2013. ‘The Financial Legacy of Iraq and Afghanistan: How Wartime Spending Decisions Will Constrain Future National Security Budgets’, s.l.: Harvard University.

Blair, T., 1999. ‘The Blair Doctrine’ [Transcript of Speech to Economic Club of Chicago]. [Online]. Available at: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/international-jan-june99-blair_doctrine4-23/. [Accessed 19 July 2015].

Blair, T., 2003a. ‘Blair: UN must deal with Iraq’. [Online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2765151.stm. [Accessed 21 April 2014].

Blair, T., 2003b. ‘Blair’s Address to a Joint Session of Congress’ [Published in New York Times]. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/17/international/worldspecial/17WEB-BTEX.html. [Accessed 14 April 2014].

Blair, T., 2010. as cited in ‘Namesakes welcome Tony Blair during Kosovo visit’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10576544. [Accessed 30 July 2015].

Brecher, J., 1999. ‘Jeremy Brecher Resigns From Bernie Sanders Staff’. [Online]. Available at: http://balkanwitness.glypx.com/brecher.htm. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Burkhalter, H., 1999. ‘Facing up to genocide: The obligation to intervene’. Medicine and Global Survival, 6(1), pp. 51-53.

Bush, G. W., 2002. ‘Text of President Bush’s 2002 State of the Union Address’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/sou012902.htm. [Accessed 14 April 2014].

Bush, G. W., 2003. ‘President Bush Announces Major Combat Operations in Iraq Have Ended’. [Online]. Available at: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/05/20030501-15.html. [Accessed 18 April 2014].

Cameron, D. & Clegg, N., 2014. as cited in ‘Cameron rejects Warsi criticism over Gaza’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-28664966. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Cameron, D., 2015b. as cited in Frances Perraudin, ‘David Cameron says UK should “step up and do more” against Isis in Syria’. Guardian, 19 July.

Cameron, D., 2015d. ‘Memorandum to the Foreign Affairs Select Committee: The extension of offensive British military operations to Syria’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/foreign-affairs/PM-Response-to-FAC-Report-Extension-of-Offensive-British-Military-Operations-to-Syria.pdf. [Accessed 14 January 2016].

Carington, P., 1999. as cited in ‘Nato bombing ’caused ethnic cleansing’ says Carrington’. Guardian, 27 August.

Coates, S., 2011. ‘Cameron: I would use force again after Libya’. Telegraph, 2 September.

Codner, M., 2014. ‘Fighting for peace, 1991-2001’. In: A. L. Johnson, ed. ‘Wars in peace: British military operations since 1991’. London: Royal United Services Institute, pp. 13-47.

Congressional Research Service, 2001. ‘Operation Enduring Freedom: Foreign pledges of military and intelligence support’. [Online]. Available at: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/6207.pdf. [Accessed 7 August 2015].

Dallaire, R., 2004. ‘Shake hands with the devil: The failure of humanity in Rwanda’. London: Arrow.

Francis, D., 2001. ‘Lessons from Kosovo/a: Alternatives to war’. London: Quaker Peace & Social Witness.

Francis, D., 2004. ‘Legitimate intervention’. Peace News, December.

Francis, D., 2006. ‘Pacifism and the responsibility to protect’. CCTS Review, Issue 31, pp. 11-14.

Francis, D., 2010. ‘From pacification to peacebuilding: A call to global transformation’. London: Pluto.

Garton Ash, T., 2014. ‘Putin’s deadly doctrine: “Protecting” Russians in Ukraine has deadly consequences’. New York Times, 18 July.

Guldimann, T., 2010. ‘Peacekeeping Under Strain: Coping with Evolving Contradictions?’. Peace & Conflict Review, 4(2), pp. 1-11.

Hammond, P., 2013. as cited in ‘Philip Hammond: Afghanistan war “is our Vietnam”‘. [Online]. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/10121753/Philip-Hammond-Afghanistan-war-is-our-Vietnam.html. [Accessed 19 July 2015].

Harnden, T., 2005. ‘I watched US use “shake and bake”‘. Telegraph, 20 November.

Hastings, M., 2009. ‘Don’t fool yourselves… Afghanistan is an unwinnable war’. Daily Mail, 6 November.

HC DC, 2013. ‘Securing the future of Afghanistan: Government response to the Committee’s Tenth Report of Session 2012–13’, London: House of Commons Defence Committee.

HC IDC, 2015. ‘Syrian refugee crisis (First report of session 2015-16)’, London: House of Commons International Development Committee.

Hersch, S. M., 2016. ‘Military to military’. London Review of Books, 7 January.

House of Commons, 2015. MPs approve motion on ISIL in Syria. [Online]. Available at: http://www.parliament.uk/business/news/2015/december/mps-debate-motion-on-isil-in-syria/. [Accessed 21 January 2016].

Human Rights Watch, 1999. ‘Abuses against Serbs and Roma in the new Kosovo’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/kosov2/. [Accessed 30 July 2015].

Human Rights Watch, 2000. ‘The crisis in Kosovo’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/nato/Natbm200-01.htm. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Human Rights Watch, 2004a. ‘Failure to protect: Anti-minority violence in Kosovo, March 2004’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2004/kosovo0704/kosovo0704.pdf. [Accessed 29 July 2015].

Human Rights Watch, 2004b. ‘Kosovo: Failure of NATO, UN to protect minorities’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.hrw.org/news/2004/07/26/kosovo-failure-nato-un-protect-minorities. [Accessed 30 July 2015].

Human Rights Watch, 2014a. ‘Israel: In-Depth Look at Gaza School Attacks’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/09/11/israel-depth-look-gaza-school-attacks. [Accessed 31 July 2015].

Hummel, H., 2007. A survey of involvement of 15 European States in the Iraq war 2003, Dusseldorf: Parliamentary Control of Security Policy.

ICG, 2014. ‘Iraq: Falluja’s Faustian bargain’, Baghdad and Brussels: International Crisis Group.

ICISS, 2001. ‘The responsibility to protect’. Ottawa: International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty.

IISS, 2015b. ‘Armed conflict survey’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iiss.org/en/publications/acs/by%20year/armed-conflict-survey-2015-46e5. [Accessed 12 July 2015].

Iraq Body Count, 2015a. ‘Documented civilian deaths from violence’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iraqbodycount.org. [Accessed 12 July 2015].

Iraq Body Count, 2015b. [home page]. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iraqbodycount.org. [Accessed 31 July 2015].

Iraq Body Count, 2016. ‘Iraq 2015: A catastrophic normal’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/2015/. [Accessed 2 January 2016].

Lamb, H., 2015. ‘Syrian air strikes mean civilians seeing their family killed by a faceless enemy – leaving ISIS free to choose a face for us’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/syrian-air-strikes-mean-civilians-seeing-their-family-killed-by-a-faceless-enemy-leaving-isis-free-a6751871.html. [Accessed 2 December 2015].

Little, A. & Silber, L., 1995. ‘The death of Yugoslavia’. London: Penguin.

Littman, M., 1999. ‘Kosovo: Law and diplomacy’, London: Centre for Policy Studies.

Mason, B., 2000. ‘Rambouillet talks “designed to fail”‘. [Online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/682877.stm. [Accessed 29 July 2015].

McGrath, R., 2000. ‘Cluster bombs: The military effectiveness and impact on civilians of cluster munitions’, London: Landmine Action.

Norton-Taylor, R., 2014a. ‘Attempts by Blair and Hague to wash hands of bloody Iraq legacy must be challenged’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/defence-and-security-blog/2014/jun/16/iraq-tony-blair-islamists. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

One World Trust and others, 2006. ‘Civil society group of the United Kingdom statement on Responsibility to Protect’. CCTS Review, Issue 31, pp. 6-8.

OSCE, n.d. ‘Kosovo Verification Mission (Closed)’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.osce.org/node/44552. [Accessed 29 July 2015].

Power, M., 2013. ‘Confessions of a Drone Warrior’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.gq.com/news-politics/big-issues/201311/drone-uav-pilot-assassination. [Accessed 23 April 2014].

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Atrocities by non-state groups (‘terrorism’) and counter-terror strategy

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The arms trade

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Black, I., 2015. ‘UK’s troubled ties with Saudi Arabia under growing strain’. Guardian, 13 October.

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Nuclear weapons

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Arms Control Association, 2015. ‘Nuclear weapons: Who has what at a glance’. [Online]. Available at: https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Nuclearweaponswhohaswhat. [Accessed 1 April 2016].

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Sustainable security concepts

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Abbott, C., Rogers, P. & Sloboda, J., 2007. ‘Beyond Terror: The truth about the real threats to our world’. London: Rider.

AFSC and FCNL, 2013. ‘Shared Security: Reimagining US Foreign Policy’, Philadelphia and Washington DC: American Friends Service Committee and Friends Committee on National Legislation.

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Ecology and climate

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Poverty and economic inequality

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Refugees and asylum-seekers

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Peacebuilding and conflict transformation

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Democracy and public attitudes

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History

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‘Bitter Lake’. 2015. [Film] Directed by Adam Curtis. UK: BBC.

Clausewitz, C. v., 1984 (first pub. 1832). ‘On War’. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hobbes, T., 2008 (first pub. 1651). ‘Leviathan’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pettersson, T. & Wallensteen, P., 2015. ‘Armed conflicts: 1946-2014’. Journal of Peace Research, 52(4), pp. 536-550.

Raymond, G. A., 2000. ‘International norms: Normative orders and peace’. In: J. A. Vasquez, ed. ‘What do we know about war?’. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 281-297.

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